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Even the names Terah, Laban, Sarah, and Milcah contain elements that reveal allegiance to the moon-god.[2] Sumerian culture in southern Mesopotamia had a number of gods in its pantheon: four leading deities -- An, Enlil, Enki, and Ninhursag -- and three chief astral deities -- Nanna (the moon), Nanna's son Utu (the sun), and Nanna's daughter Inanna.Enlil was considered the chief god, with his cult center at the city of Nippur.As we begin our study of the life of Abraham, we'll be traveling back through time nearly 4,000 years into a semi-nomadic, Middle Bronze Age culture far removed from our own.While many of the customs will be explained in the lessons to follow, here's an introduction to Abraham's life and times.Though the traditional view is that Moses was the author of the Pentateuch, since the Enlightenment there has been growing speculation on who the authors were.The most celebrated and complex theory of authorship was advanced by German Old Testament scholar Julius Wellhausen (1844-1918), which is referred to as "the Documentary Hypothesis." He posited four strands of sources which are abbreviated JEDP: for God; the Eloistic strand by the use of El for God.He believed God to be the Lord of the cosmos (; 24:3), supreme judge of mankind (;), controller of nature (; ; ), highly exalted () and eternal ().Whenever God spoke to him, he obeyed immediately in faith.[8] Abraham's relationship with God was personal rather than formal.

He grew wealthy, married again after Sarah's death, and died at the age of 175 years.

Working backward from the genealogies and other data in the Pentateuch puts the birth of Abraham in 2166 BC, and frames Abraham's life from 2166 to 1991 BC.[11] However, there are several problems with this approach.

First, textual: the Greek Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch agree with Paul (Galatians ) that the 430 years of Exodus apply to the whole time span between Abraham and the Exodus, not just the Israelite stay in Egypt as the Hebrew Masoretic text would suggest, bringing Abraham's birth year to 1952.[12] Second, genealogies in Bible occasionally skip generations.

Other Sumerian cities had their own special deities as well.

Nanna, the moon-god, was the main deity of the Sumerian city of Ur, later known by its Semitic name, Sin.[3] This male deity was also known in the north from several inscriptions to "Sin/Shahar, the Lord of Haran,"[4] and was the tutelary god of Haran. Worship in Sumer involved temples as well as ziggurats with small temples on the top.

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